Judo


Japanese JUDO (from Chinese: "gentle way"), system of unarmed combat,is now primarily a sport. Sporting judo rules are complex; the objective is to throw the opponent cleanly, or pin him, or master him by applying pressure to arm joints or to the neck.

Rules :

Using nage-waza (standing and throwing techniques), katame-waza (grappling techniques), and atemi-waza (striking techniques), a judo contestant seeks to throw or pin an opponent to the mat, or to apply holds that confine the opponent’s movement. Judo competition takes place on a mat that ranges in size from 14 to 16 m (45.9 to 52.5 ft) square and is divided into two zones. The center contest area is 8 to 10 m (26.2 to 32.8 ft) square, including a red border 1 m (3.3 ft) wide, called the danger zone, that marks the outside of the contest area. Surrounding the contest area is a safety area, which is 3 m (9.8 ft) wide. Judo contests are officiated by one referee and two judges. The contests begin with a ceremonial bow between the two contestants, and the match lengths are determined by individual tournament rules. In world championship competitions and in the Olympic Games, the time limit of a contest is 4 minutes for women and 5 minutes for men.

Conquer :

A judo match is won when one contestant scores an ippon, which is awarded for several reasons: a clean, forceful throw; holding an opponent down for 30 seconds; or applying a successful choke hold or elbow lock. An ippon is also awarded if a contestant executes two waza-ari. A waza-ari is a move that narrowly misses qualifying for an ippon, such as a slightly inferior throw or holding the opponent down for 25 seconds. If a match reaches its time limit without an ippon, the result is decided by the accumulation of inferior throws and hold-downs of under 25 seconds, as well as the subtraction of penalty points for such infractions as avoiding combat or using the hands illegally.

Uniform :

The judo uniform, called a judogi, consists of a white or off-white jacket, secured by a belt of a color that indicates the contestant’s ranking, and a pair of trousers. As contestants gain expertise, their belt color changes, with white being the lowest rank and black the highest. No shoes or socks are worn. Contestants compete in seven weight classes.

Background :

Judo was first developed in the early 1880s, when Japanese educator Kano Jigoro adapted it from the martial arts form of jujutsu. He regulated some jujutsu techniques and eliminated the more dangerous ones, introducing the new sport in 1882 and establishing the first judo school, called the Kodokan, in Tokyo, Japan. In 1951 the International Judo Federation was formed as the sport’s governing body. The organization is now located in Seoul, South Korea. Official Olympic judo competition for men debuted at the 1964 Summer Games in Tokyo. Judo was not an event at the 1968 Summer Games in Mexico City, but it returned to the Olympics at the 1972 Summer Games in Munich, West Germany. Women’s judo was a demonstration sport—that is, not part of the official Olympic program—at the 1988 Summer Games in Seoul, South Korea, and it became a medal event—that is, an official Olympic sport—at the 1992 Summer Games in Barcelona, Spain. Athletes from Japan have dominated international judo competition.

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