Skiing


Skiing is a winter sport. In this game participants move across sloped or flat snow-covered surfaces while wearing long, narrow runners, known as skis, on their feet.
Equipment :
Skis are made of strips of shaped wood, metal, or synthetic material that can be attached to specially designed ski boots. They vary in length and are selected according to the skier's height and ability, and to the type of skiing. The front tips of all skis curve upward. Rigid boots, usually made of plastic, are used for downhill skiing, and lighter, more flexible boots are used for cross-country.
There are 3 types of Competitive Skiing :
Downhill Skiing :
The types of downhill (Alpine) races are downhill racing, slalom racing, giant slalom, super giant slalom, and combined. In downhill racing, skiers move in a straight line down a steep slope in the fastest possible time. Speeds of about 130 km/h (80 mph) are sometimes achieved. The racer must pass through a series of gates, which are pairs of poles with marker flags. In slalom races, the skier zigzags down and across the slope through 45 to 75 gates.
Cross-Country Skiing :
Cross-country (Nordic or langlauf) skiing is performed on longer, flatter courses emphasizing endurance and strength over long distances. The fundamental cross-country stride combines a kick-off step with one foot and a gliding step with the other. These steps alternate smoothly and rapidly, and the ski pole is used to push off as the opposite leg begins its kick-off.
Freestyle Skiing :
Freestyle skiing consists of three disciplines: ballet, moguls, and aerials. Ballet consists of a programme of jumps, spins, and gliding steps performed to music while the skier manoeuvres down a smooth slope. The routine is judged on technical difficulty and the skier's overall performance and choreography.The competitor is judged on the quality and technique of turns, upright aerial tricks, and speed.
History of Skiing :
Modern sports skiing began in Norway in the mid-20th century. The first international ski tournament was held in 1892 near Christiania (now Oslo, Norway). The Fédération Internationale de Ski (FIS) was formed in 1924, and cross-country skiing became part of the Olympic Games that year. Nordic skiing dominated international competition until 1936, when Alpine skiing was introduced at the Winter Olympics in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany. In 1967 the World Cup for Alpine competition was introduced. In the 1970s and 1980s, World Cup circuits were developed in freestyle, cross-country, ski jumping, and Nordic combined.
History :
The oldest known skis, found in peat bogs in Sweden and Finland, are estimated to be from 4,500 to 5,000 years old.One of the first recorded competitions was a cross-country ski race held in Tromsø, Norway, in 1843. The first known ski exhibition was held at Kristiansand, Norway, in 1861, and the first international competition was held near Christiania (now Oslo), Norway, in 1892.Sondre Norheim of Norway was responsible for inventing the sport of ski jumping in the 1840s; competitions began in the 1860s.As skiing spread to mainland Europe, it soon became apparent that the techniques used by the Scandinavians were unsuitable for mountainous terrain, especially in the Alps of south central Europe.Skiing was founded in the United States in the 1800s in communities where Scandinavians settled, especially in Wisconsin and Minnesota.
First Competition :
The first freestyle competition was the North American Freestyle Skiing Championships, held in 1968 at Waterville Valley, New Hampshire. Freestyle skiing held its first official FIS World Cup season in 1984, and the first FIS Freestyle World Championships were held in 1986. The sport was a demonstration event at the 1988 Winter Olympics in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. In 1992 moguls events were added as a medal event, and aerials gained medal status in 1994.

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